Subdued nations, destroying sanctuaries, deporting gods and people, and forcing their subjects to worship Assyrian gods. Cyrus' acts supposedly inaugurated a new policy, aimed at winning the subject nations for the Persian empire by tolerance and clemency. It was exceptional that Cambyses and Xerxes abandoned this. Dissertation proposal service 2012 Assyrian And Persian Empires difference between dissertation and paper sell and buy essays Start studying Chapter 3 Section 3 The Assyrian and Persian Empires. Mesopotamian Empires: Babylon, Assyria, and Persia! First Empires and Common Cultures in Afro-Eurasia, ... Region Compare the map of the Persian Empire with that of the Assyrian Empire on page 96. His empire exceeded even the Persian empire in ...assyrian and persian empires4 Our professional paper writers will make sure that all of their papers are exceptionally well-researched, because they consider that the most crucial stage of paper writing. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 6 Soc St Ch 3 Section 3 Assyrian & Persian Empires. Neo-Assyrian Empire collapsed with the conquest of Nineveh by the Babylonians and Medes. What areas did the Persians rule that the Assyrians did not? After that, they will rely on their literary skills to come up with the best solution in terms of style and arguments for your order. Write a compare and contrast essay about the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian empires. Assyrian conquests in the west and south were delayed for a ... Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.1205 Post & Paddock Street, Grand Prairie Directions Why set an appointment with Empire Today ... Difference between the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Empire; ... dissertation proposal service 2012 Assyrian And Persian Empires difference between dissertation and paper sell and buy essays Start studying Chapter 3 Section 3 The Assyrian and Persian Empires. Mesopotamian Empires: Babylon, Assyria, and Persia! First Empires and Common Cultures in Afro-Eurasia, ... Region Compare the map of the Persian Empire with that of the Assyrian Empire on page 96. His empire exceeded even the Persian empire in ...assyrian and persian empires2 Rush My Papers can definitely help you out, and when you place an order with us, you will be paired up with a brilliant paper writer which will take note of all the requirements and turn them into a stunning paper. Write a compare and contrast essay about the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian empires. Assyrian conquests in the west and south were delayed for a ... Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 6 Soc St Ch 3 Section 3 Assyrian & Persian Empires. Neo-Assyrian Empire collapsed with the conquest of Nineveh by the Babylonians and Medes. What areas did the Persians rule that the Assyrians did not? We never sell pre-written essays, only stuff that is written specifically for you, from scratch, and according to your wishes and specifications.
Sep 14, 2015. The Persians & Greeks Crash Course World History #5 - Duration. CrashCourse 4,815,507 views ·. The Rising Again of Assyria in Bible Prophecy - Duration. JerusalemChannel 30,843 views · · History Channel Documentary - Assyrian Empire - The Ancient Assyrian Civilization. The civilization on the Iranian plateau is very ancient; copper was smelted there about 5500 BC, and Elam in the lowlands lagged only slightly behind Sumer in the development of hieroglyphic writing 5,000 years ago. However, the Elamites adopted the written language of Akkadian as the most universal language of the area for two millennia. The oldest written document of a treaty found so far was between the Akkadian Naram-Sin and an Elamite king about 43 centuries ago. Much of what is known about Elamite civilization comes to us from Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian records. The cities of Susa and Anshan were important links for trade and communication between Mesopotamia and the Harrapan culture of the Indus valley. Elam overthrew the Third dynasty of Ur in the 21st century BC; three centuries later they were conquered by Babylon's Hammurabi, but they were able to defeat his son.
Nov 4, 2014. In Mesopotamia, the rise of Assyrian power began in 900 BC where it can be found on the Bible Timeline Chart, and it lasted until about 609 BC. It is during the time of this powerful empire that the Assyrians gained a high position among various other countries in the world including Armenia, Egypt and. The sight of vast graves opening and the undead clawing out should unnerve us all. As more blood flows than any horror film offers, it’s brought the hope of eternal life to bygone empires we all thought dead and buried — and good riddance. A Turkish attempt to establish a neo-Ottoman Empire failed (none of their neighbors wanted the Turks back), but three other imperia have gotten at least one foot out of the grave: the Persian Empire, the Arab Caliphate and the Russian Empire. Desperate for a legacy, our president obsesses about a deal (no matter how wretched) on Iran’s nuclear program, while ignoring Iran’s aggression across the Middle East. To date, Iran has given up nothing, while we’ve given its rulers time, sanctions relief and almost $12 billion in “unfrozen” assets. Blinded by the flash of headline events, we fail to see the strategic arcs of our era: the agonized collapse of Europe’s empires — climaxing in the Soviet Union’s demise — and now, amid the chaos and fanaticism, the belief on the part of once-mighty powers that they can rebuild fallen empires. In his recent State of the Union message, the president even defended Iran against Congress and further sanctions. It’s a potential strategic disruptor of the first magnitude. And what are the modern Persians doing as they drag out the talks? As I’ve warned on Fox News and Charles Krauthammer described — eloquently — in The Washington Post, today’s Iranians, with their Persian heritage, are on the march as surely as were the armies of Xerxes 2,500 years ago. Iran has established hegemony over western Afghanistan. If the Assad regime survives — which it probably will — Syria, too, will pay tribute to the reborn Persian empire. The junta-for-Allah has turned the Shia rump of Iraq into a vassal state and our president’s “no-boots-on-the-ground” minimalism has led to American airpower serving Iran’s ends against the Islamic State. Through Hezbollah, Tehran dominates Lebanese politics. And our refusal to directly arm the Kurds (as we continue pretending that Iraq can be nursed back to health) drives our only allies amid the Islamic State chaos into the arms of Iran for their own protection. If the caliphate is rolled back, Iran will control the territory regained. The Iran-backed Houthi rebels — fellow Shia — just overthrew Yemen’s feeble pro-US government. And Yemen borders the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, our ally of inconvenience, which faces a leadership transition amid a web of regional crises. And the ruling family’s terrified that the expensively armed Saudi military will be exposed as a hollow force. Nor have the Iranians given up on swallowing Shia-dominated Bahrain.
Apr 4, 2014. The Neo-Assyrian Empire 911-612 BCE is remembered for the brutal and efficient manner in which it conquered its foes, often using mass deportation to remove conquered people to different and unfamiliar parts of their empire, using these subject peoples as everything raging from agricultural slaves to. Learning Objectives Learning Objectives Identify the following: theocracy, polytheism, empire, The Code of Hammurabi, and the Babylonian Captivity. Explore and identify the chief contributions and characteristics of the Babylonians, Phoenicians, Assyrians, and Persians. Identify the following people: Sargon, Hammurabi, Nebuchadnezzar II, Ahura Mazda, Cyrus the Great, and Darius. How many civilizations controlled the Mesopotamian region? Timeline - Mesopotamia Timeline - Mesopotamia Sumer Akkad Babylon/ parts of their kingdom Resettled other people into conquered territories The Assyrians By 650, Assyrians governed empire from Persian Gulf to Asia minor Established capital in Nineveh, along Tigris River Alliance between Chaldeans and Medes brought down the Assyrian empire The Chaldeans Descended from Hammurabi’s Babylonian empire Height of empire was during reign of King Nebuchadnezzar Conquered Canaan and Syria Built Babylon into beautiful city The Chaldeans Among seven/ as Syria. Invaders, such as the Assyrians and Persians, conquered the Nile region.
Sep 8, 2014. Chapter 42-3 Assyrian & Persia in the Middle East. The Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-612 BCE) is remembered for the brutal and efficient manner in which it conquered its foes, often using mass deportation to remove conquered people to different and unfamiliar parts of their empire, using these subject peoples as everything raging from agricultural slaves to soldiers and charioteers. Grisly Assyrian Record of Torture and Death by Erika Belibtreu [This is a secondary source examining Neo-Assyrian methods of torture and coercion in their conquests. It is in PDF format and not hosted locally.] One of the most historically prominent (largely due to its recording in the Hebrew scriptures) is the conquest of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah by the Neo-Assyrians (and others). After the fall of the Neo-Assyrian empire in 612 BCE, a new power, eventually known as the Persians, would arise. Cyrus the Great, first ruler of the Achaemenid dynasty, would astound the world by returning various subject peoples from their exiles.
Other than covering some of the same territory mostly Mesopotamia they were very different. Assyria started out as a city-state the city was Asher, later they built a bigger city nearby called Nineveh. They conquered nearby city-states and ext. This Book On The Flickering Light of Asia, or The Assyrian Nation and Church is dedicated TO MY DEAR PARENTS, whose sole ambition was that I should serve the cause of Christ; whose unselfish love taught me the meaning of service to others; whose Christian influence left an indelible impression upon my life; and whose earnest and persistent prayers were destined to be answered in the arrest of my steps, and in the guidance of my feet into a service which even now must be their, as is my own, supreme delight. Assyrian International News Agency Books Online org FOREWORD INTRODUCTION PART I : THE ASSYRIAN NATION And the Great World War THE TURKISH TRAP THE FIRST SOUND OF BATTLE THE FINAL SIEGE OF THE MOUNTAIN ASSYRIANS THE ARRIVAL OF THE NESTORIAN REFUGEES IN PERSIA THE SIEGE OF URMIA AND THE OUTRAGES PERPETRATED UPON THE ASSYRIANS OF PERSIA THE GLORIOUS WORK OF THE AMERICAN MISSION THE RETURN OF THE RUSSIANS THE VISIT OF THE PATRIARCH TO THE GRAND DUKE NICHOLAI THE ASSYRIAN EXPEDITION TO THEIR FORMER HABITATIONS THE FALL OF THE CZAR AND ITS EFFECT UPON THE ASSYRIANS THE ISOLATED POSITION OF THE ASSYRIANS THE FUTILE ATTEMPTS OF MAR SHIMON FOR A FRIENDLY UNDERSTANDING WITH THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES OF PERSIA THE SECOND UPRISING OF URMIA MOSLEMS THE BATTLE AND THE SURRENDER OF URMIA THE CONDITIONS OF THE MOSLEM'S SURRENDER THE ASSASSINATION OF MAR SHIMON THE PUNISHMENT OF SIMKOO THE BATTLE OF SALMAS A SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF MAR SHIMON BENYAMIN THE SUCCESSOR OF THE PATRIARCH MAR BENYAMIN LADY SURMA THE ASSYRIAN BATTLES WITH THE TURKS THE MASSACRE OF THE CHRISTIANS IN KHOI, PERSIA THE ASSYRIAN BATTLE OF SALMAS WITH THE INVADING FORCES OF TURKEY THE LAST BATTLES OF URMIA AND THE CAUSE THAT LED TO THE FINAL EXODUS OF THE CHRISTIANS THE FINAL EXODUS OF THE ASSYRIANS AND THE LAST MASSACRE OF THE CHRISTIANS IN URMIA HAMADAN AND BEYOND THE ASSYRIAN CLAIMS BEFORE THE CONFERENCE OF THE PRELIMINARIES OF PEACE AT PARIS THE CLAIMS OF THE ASSYRIANSBEFORE THE PRELIMINARIES OF PEACE AT PARIS I. Yet there is a little remnant of what was once one of the earth's most famous races, which has dwelt in Mosul and the regions round about for, upwards of several thousand years. And whatever good there may come out of this imperfect labor of love, which may contribute toward the resurrection of my fathers' church, and the restoration of that church to her former sphere of influence and usefulness in Christ's kingdom, that good should, above all, endear the peerless name of Him who hears and answers the persistent prayers of Christian parents. To these people the disposal of Mosul means life renewed and hope or utter extinction. Werda is the reviser of the Assyrian Bible, author of the Engish-Assyrian Dictionary, Assyrian-English Dictionary, Editor and Publisher of the Assyrian American Courier. Mosul to most Americans means only oil and a wrangling point of European and Turkish diplomacy. These two unique qualifications were most marvelously revealed during the terrible progress of the great World War. And just as during centuries of ceaseless persecutions, the capacity of this faithful nation for suffering for Christ never shrank, so also the ancient valor of the Assyrian warriors had never deserted the people.
Jul 20, 2017. Assyrian and Persian Empires. 1. The Assyrian Empire; 2. Map of the Assyrian Empire and successive stages of expansion. Image source The Assyrians came from northern Mesopotamia, and by 900 BCE the Neo-Assyrian period they established a vast. Overview map of the Ancient Near East in the 15th century BC (Middle Assyrian period), showing the core territory of Assyria with its two major cities Assur and Nineveh wedged between Babylonia downstream (to the south-east) and the states of Mitanni and Hatti upstream (to the north-west). From the end of the seventh century BC to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers, although a number of Neo-Assyrian states arose at different times during the Parthian and early Sasanian Empires between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, a period which also saw Assyria become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East. Centered on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia (modern northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey and the northwestern fringes of Iran), the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. Making up a substantial part of the greater Mesopotamian "cradle of civilization", which included Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, and Babylonia, Assyria was at the height of technological, scientific and cultural achievements for its time. At its peak, the Assyrian empire stretched from Cyprus and the East Mediterranean to Iran, and from what is now Armenia and Azerbaijan in the Caucasus, to the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt and eastern Libya.
Oct 24, 2017. Eventbrite - Irish Historical Society presents 'Writing the History of the Assyrian and Persian Empires in Medieval Ireland', Dr Elizabeth Boyle - Tuesday, 24 October 2017 at Boston College Ireland, Dublin 2, County Dublin. Find event and ticket information. , now the whole world wants a “piece of the pie” of Zion. What is equally amazing is that there are Christians or Islamists who serious think that their church, mosque or religious affiliations makes them eligible to take by defraud, as “spiritual Israelites” the inheritance of the “chosen ones”. Whether this inheritance is “temporal or spiritual”, many of them will be abrogating their own genetic rights to the possession of the Promised Land, whether on this planet or another dimension. Unknown to them, they are willingly giving up their birthright, not knowing that they are the Lost Sheep of the House of Israel. It’s like the man, who sold his family estate, to spend his life prospecting for a diamond mine; not realizing that he had sold the largest diamond in the world that was in the backyard of his own family inheritance.
From the central perspective of the Assyrian and Persian empires, Cyprus was situated on the western periphery. Therefore, the local governing traditions were respected by the Assyrian and Persian masters, as long as the petty kings fulfilled their duties by paying tributes and providing military support when requested to. The Assyrian Empire and the Persian Empire were two of the earliest major empires in the world. The Assyrians were powerful from about 900 to about 600 BC. The Persian Empire came afterwards, holding power beginning around 550 BC.
Athura also called Assyria Babylonia, was a geographical area within the Persian Achaemenid Empire held by the last nobility of Aššur Akkadian, known as Athura Neo-Aramaic or Atouria Greek, during the period of 539 BC to 330 BC as a military protectorate state of Persia under the rule of Cyrus the Great. Although. Licinius, in full Valerius Licinianus Licinius, (died 325), Roman emperor from 308 to 324. Born of Illyrian peasant stock, Licinius advanced in the army and was suddenly elevated to the rank of augustus (November 308) by his friend Galerius, who had become emperor. Galerius hoped to have him rule the West, but since Italy, Africa, and Spain were held by the usurper Maxentius, while Constantine reigned in Gaul and Britain, Licinius had to content himself with ruling Pannonia. When Galerius died in 311, Licinius took over Galerius’ European dominions. He married Constantine’s half sister Constantia (313) and in the same year defeated the Eastern emperor Maximinus at Tzurulum, east of Adrianople, Thrace, pursuing him into Asia, where Maximinus died.
The Persians and Assyrians were both large empires in the Middle East from the Iron Age world. Both kingdoms boasted powerful militaries that protected their vast holdings and expanded their borders. The empires were not protected by natural barriers so a strong military was a necessity. Despite this geographical. The Neo-Assyrian Empire (934-610 BCE or 912-612 BCE) was, according to many historians, the first true empire in the world. The Assyrians had expanded their territory from the city of Ashur over the centuries, and their fortunes rose and fell with successive rulers and circumstances in the Near East. Beginning with the reign of Adad Nirari II (912-891 BCE), the empire made great territorial expansions that resulted in its eventual control of a region which spanned the whole of Mesopotamia, part of Anatolia, the Levant, and Egypt. They fielded the most effective fighting force in the world at that time, the first to be armed with iron weapons, whose tactics in battle made them invincible. Their political and military policies have also given them the long-standing reputation for cruelty and ruthlessness though this has come to be contested in recent years, as it is now argued they were neither more nor less cruel than other ancient empires (such as that of Alexander the Great or of Rome).
They could keep their customs and religion as long as they paid their taxes and obeyed the Persian rulers. This was different from how earlier conquerors such as the Assyrians had ruled. Government In order to maintain control of the large empire, each area had a ruler called a satrap. The satrap was like a governor of the. Throughout this Web Quest you will be reviewing information about three of the main empires: Persia, Babylon, and Assyria. Your first task is to look through the websites below and take notes on information you feel is important in relation to the empires and their rulers. When this section is complete, you will have time to discuss your findings with your peers and add any notes that other students found that you also feel is important. 1) Now that you are experts on the early empires and their leaders, your second task is to answer the questions below using the information from the websites. You are welcome to look back at the websites as needed. Make sure you answer in complete sentences and make sure you use your critical thinking skills when needed! After all of the questions are answered, you will have group time to discuss the questions with your classmates.
During the Old Assyrian Empire c.2025-1750 BC and Middle Assyrian Empire 1365-1020 BC the Assyrians ruled over parts of Pre-Iranic northern and western Iran. The Neo-Assyrian Empire 911-605 BC saw Assyria conquer the Iranic Persians, Medes, Manneans and Parthians into their empire, together with the. The Assyrian Empire was established on the Upper Tigris River by 700 BC. The Assyrian empire was ruled by kings whose power was absolute.
Paiker 1 Question 2 Compare and contrast the Assyrian and Persian civilizations. Be sure to describe any key leaders, expansion efforts, and treatment of the other societies. Ans The Assyrian and the Persian civilizations were two very important empires with different ways of ruling people. The Assyrians rose before the. Read this essay and over 1,500,000 others like it now. Vocabulary for Chapter 5: Assyrian Empire, Babylonian Empire and Persian Empire. Dont miss your chance to earn better grades and be a better writer! Find, create, and access Fertile Crescent, flashcards with Course Hero. What are the differences between the Assyrian Empire and the Persian Empire? Assyrian And Persian Empires assyrian Assyrian Empire In spite of the efforts of Assyrian kings Tiglath …It ended with the total destruction of Assyrian power. Compare and contrast the Assyrian and Persian Empires, especiallyin terms of military power and imperial AT LEAST 400 words. wonderful opportunity to compare two different styles of empires. persians more importantassyrian and persian empires $divdiv . BECK index Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian, and Persian Empires. Assyrian Empire 967-664 BC Assyrian Empire 664-609 BC Neo-Babylonian Empire Your purpose: To study two of the most influential empires of early Civilization, the Assyrians and Persians. Moreover, being a sociable person, I have many friends since I like to communicate with people and get to know new interesting individuals.
Artistic, and architectural achievements. For 300 years Assyrians controlled the entire Fertile Crescent, from the Persian Gulf to Egypt. In 612 b.c. however, Assyria's capital, Nineveh, was besieged and destroyed by a coalition of Medes, Scythians, and Chaldeans, decimating the previously powerful Assyrian Empire. Early Assyrian Period (2600 BCE – 2025 BCE) Old Assyrian Empire (2025 BC - 1378 BCE) Middle Assyrian Empire (1392 BC - 934 BCE) Neo-Assyrian Empire (911 BCE – 609 BCE) Achaemenid Assyria (539 BCE – 330 BCE) Seleucid Empire (312 BCE – 63 BCE) Parthian Empire (247 BCE – 224 CE) Syrian Wars (66 BCE – 217 CE) Roman Syria (64 BCE – 637 CE) Adiabene (15–116) Roman Assyria (116–118) Christianization (1st to 3rd c.) Nestorian Schism (5th c.) Asōristān (226–651) Byzantine–Sasanian wars (502–628) Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia (630s) Muslim conquest of Syria (630s) Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) Emirs of Mosul (905–1383) Buyid amirate (945–1055) Principality of Antioch (1098–1268) Ilkhanate (1258–1335) Jalairid Sultanate (1335–1432) Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468) Ağ Qoyunlu (1453–1501) Safavid dynasty (1508-1555) Ottoman Empire (1555–1917) Schism of 1552 (16th c.) Massacres of Badr Khan (1840s) Massacres of Diyarbakir (1895) Rise of nationalism (19th c.) Adana massacre (1909) Assyrian genocide (1914–1920) Assyrian independence movement (since 1919) Simele massacre (1933) Post-Saddam Iraq (since 2003) It mostly incorporated the original Assyrian kingdom, corresponding with modern northern Iraq in the upper Tigris, the middle and upper Euphrates, modern-day north eastern Syria (Eber-Nari) and part of south-east Anatolia (modern Turkey). The Neo-Assyrian Empire collapsed after a period of violent civil wars, followed by an invasion by a coalition of some of its former subject peoples, the Iranian peoples (Medes, Persians and Scythians), Babylonians and Cimmerians in the late 7th century BC, culminating in the Battle of Nineveh, and Assyria had fallen completely by 605 BC. Between 605 and 559 BC, Assyria was divided between the Median Empire to the east and the Neo-Babylonian Empire to the west. Both parts were subsumed into the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC, and it has been argued that they constituted the satrapies of Media and Athura, respectively. Despite a few rebellions, Assyria functioned as an important part of the Achaemenid Empire.
Assyrian Empire 967-664 BC Assyrian Empire 664-609 BC Neo-Babylonian Empire Zarathushtra Persian Empire to 500 BC Persian-Greek Wars 550-404 BC Persian-Greek Wars 404-323 BC Parthian Empire Mani and Manichaeism Sasanian Persia 224-531. Sasanian Persia 531-651. This chapter has been published in. Fw-300 #ya-qn-sort h2 /* Breadcrumb */ #ya-question-breadcrumb #ya-question-breadcrumb i #ya-question-breadcrumb a #bc .ya-q-full-text, .ya-q-text #ya-question-detail h1 html[lang="zh-Hant-TW"] .ya-q-full-text, html[lang="zh-Hant-TW"] .ya-q-text, html[lang="zh-Hant-HK"] .ya-q-full-text, html[lang="zh-Hant-HK"] .ya-q-text html[lang="zh-Hant-TW"] #ya-question-detail h1, html[lang="zh-Hant-HK"] #ya-question-detail h1 #Stencil . Bdend-1g /* Trending Now */ /* Center Rail */ #ya-center-rail .profile-banner-default .ya-ba-title #Stencil . Bgc-lgr #ya-best-answer, #ya-qpage-msg, #ya-question-detail, li.ya-other-answer .tupwrap .comment-text /* Right Rail */ #Stencil . Bxsh-003-prpl #yai-q-answer, #ya-trending, #ya-related-questions h2. Fw-300 .qstn-title #ya-trending-questions-show-more, #ya-related-questions-show-more #ya-trending-questions-more, #ya-related-questions-more /* DMROS */ .
This lesson is a survey of the three empires that emerged after the Bronze Age collapse. Parts of the survey are viewed from the perspective of the Israelites, who found themselves the playthings of powerful empires. The lecture focuses on a few specific rulers and their impact on their empires. It also traces patterns of. Assyria took its name from the town of Ashur, which was the main town but it may also apply to the wide empire that was captured and ruled by the Assyrians. Assyria had better climate than Babylonia owing to the fact that it was located in a highland region north of Babylonia. Assyrians were not entirely Semitic and their true origin is not really known. Their culture was also largely indebted to the Babylonians, the Hurrians and the Hittites. Their religion was an adoption from the Babylonians except that the presiding god of the city of Ashur became Assyria’s chief deity. Babylonia was located at the eastern end of the fertile crescent of west Asia with its capitol as Babylon.
Ancient Mesopotamia is called the cradle of civilization. The first cities and empires formed here. As you will see from the timeline, power changed hands. During the period treated in the second half of the Old Testament course of study, Israel felt the powerful influences of several neighboring kingdoms and empires—especially the successive empires of Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome—each one pressing in, invading, conquering, exerting its own influence on the culture and institutions of Israel, affecting its political and social structure, testing its fortitude and obedience. Much of the fate of Israel was due to the position of its lands at the crossroads of the ancient world. Bordered on the west by the Great Sea (the Mediterranean) and on the east by the searing Arabian deserts, it lay directly on a virtual land bridge between Egypt and the lands of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Not always a target for invasion itself, the land and its people were often the victims of armies passing through, marching in pursuit of the riches of Egypt. Thus, with the waning of Egyptian and Hittite power in the early part of the twelfth century , a number of smaller nations were able to establish their independence in the area of Palestine.