Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language - ScienceDirect

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Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language - ScienceDirect

Direct effects hypothesis

Direct effects hypothesis, The theory that coping resources, such as social support, have beneficial psychological and health effects under conditions of both high stress and low stress. emotional support, Indications from other people that one is loved, valued, and cared for; believed to be an important aspect of social. The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which further language acquisition becomes much more difficult and effortful. The critical period hypothesis states that the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. If language input does not occur until after this time, the individual will never achieve a full command of language—especially grammatical systems. The evidence for such a period is limited, and support stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in biology such as visual development, but nonetheless is widely accepted. The nature of such a critical period, however, has been one of the most fiercely debated issues in psycholinguistics and cognitive science in general for decades. Some writers have suggested a "sensitive" or "optimal" period rather than a critical one; others dispute the causes (physical maturation, cognitive factors). The duration of the period also varies greatly in different accounts.

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Learn About Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

Direct effects hypothesis

Jun 25, 2010. Social support is associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, however the physiologic mechanisms underlying this relationship remains unspecified. This study evaluated the association of social support with inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular risk C-reactive protein CRP. The null hypothesis is the proposition that implies no effect or no relationship between phenomena or populations. Any observed difference would be due to sampling error (random chance) or experimental error. The null hypothesis is popular because it can be tested and found to be false, which then implies there is a relationship between the observed data. It may be easier to think of it as a , proposes observations are influenced by a non-random factor. In an experiment, the alternate hypothesis suggests the experimental or independent variable has an effect on the dependent variable. Also Known As: H, no-difference hypothesis There are two ways to state a null hypothesis. One is to state it as a declarative sentence and the other is to present it as a mathematical statement. For example, say a researcher suspects exercise is correlated to weight loss, assuming a diet remains unchanged.

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Agglomeration effects in foreign direct investment and the pollution haven hypothesis

Direct effects hypothesis

Linear mixed-effects models LMEMs have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how. Have emerged over the course of human evolution, and a suite of adaptations have accumulated over time, including upright walking, the capacity to make tools, enlargement of the brain, prolonged maturation, the emergence of complex mental and social behavior, and dependence on technology to alter the surroundings. The period of human evolution has coincided with environmental change, including cooling, drying, and wider climate fluctuations over time. How did environmental change shape the evolution of new adaptations, the origin and extinction of early species closely related to humans – that is, on the human divide of the evolutionary tree since human and chimpanzee ancestors branched off from a common ancestor sometime between 6 and 8 million years ago.) How do we know Earth’s climate has changed? One important line of evidence is the record of oxygen isotopes through time. This record of δ (forams, for short) that lived on the sea floor. This measure can be used as an indicator of changing temperature and glacial ice over time. There are two main trends: an overall decrease in temperature and a larger degree of climate fluctuation over time. The amount of variability in environmental conditions was greater in the later stages of human evolution than in the earlier stages. Ten-million-year record of oxygen stable isotopes, measured in foraminifera recovered from deep-sea sediment cores, illustrates that global ocean temperature and glacial ice varied widely over the past 6 million years, the period of human evolution.

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The diet–heart hypothesis: a critique - ScienceDirect

Direct effects hypothesis

The direct effects hypothesis states that social support is beneficial to mental and physical health whether or not the person is under stress. 6. Social resources clearly Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Informally, we sometimes call this a "bottom up" approach (please note that it's "bottom up" and "bottoms up" which is the kind of thing the bartender says to customers when he's trying to close for the night! In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories. These two methods of reasoning have a very different "feel" to them when you're conducting research. Inductive reasoning, by its very nature, is more open-ended and exploratory, especially at the beginning. Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses. Even though a particular study may look like it's purely deductive (e.g., an experiment designed to test the hypothesized effects of some treatment on some outcome), most social research involves both inductive and deductive reasoning processes at some time in the project. In fact, it doesn't take a rocket scientist to see that we could assemble the two graphs above into a single circular one that continually cycles from theories down to observations and back up again to theories. Even in the most constrained experiment, the researchers may observe patterns in the data that lead them to develop new theories.

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The false consensus effect: A meta-analysis of 115 hypothesis tests - ScienceDirect

Direct effects hypothesis

Direct effects hypothesis Direct effects hypothesis refers to the theory that coping resources, such as social support, have beneficial psychological and health effects under conditions of both high stress and low stress. 􏰀Three components of emotion (i.e., cognitive, physiological, behavioral) 􏰀Universal emotions (i.e., fear, anger, happiness, surprise, joy, disgust, and sadness)Adaptive role of emotion 􏰀Theories of emotion Brain regions involved in the generation and experience of emotions The role of the limbic system in emotion Emotion and the autonomic nervous system Physiological markers of emotion (signatures of emotion)“We experience a barrage of environmental stimuli throughout the course of our lives. In many cases, environmental stimuli trigger physiological responses, such as an elevated heart rate, increased perspiration, or heightened feelings of anxiety. How we perceive and interpret these physiological responses is complex and influenced by psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors. "Emotional responses, such as feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, or stress are often born out of our interpretation of this interplay of physiological responses. Our experience with emotions and stress not only affects our behavior, but also shapes our interactions with others. "The content in this category covers the basic components and theories of emotion and their underlying psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors. It also addresses stress, stress outcomes, and stress management. The topics and subtopics in this category are the following:” Definition: “A complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant.” Emotion versus mood: “Typically, the word emotion indicates a subjective, affective state that is relatively intense and that occurs in response to something we experience.

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Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. - APA PsycNET

Direct effects hypothesis

Examines whether the positive association between social support and well-being is attributable more to an overall beneficial effect of support main- or direct-effect model or to a process of support protecting persons from potentially adverse effects of stressful events buffering model. The review of studies is organized. Generally to understand some characteristic of the general population we take a random sample and study the corresponding property of the sample. We then determine whether any conclusions we reach about the sample are representative of the population. This is done by choosing an estimator function for the characteristic (of the population) we want to study and then applying this function to the sample to obtain an estimate. By using the appropriate statistical test we then determine whether this estimate is based solely on chance. The hypothesis that the estimate is based solely on chance is called the null hypothesis. Thus, the null hypothesis is true if the observed data (in the sample) do not differ from what would be expected on the basis of chance alone. The complement of the null hypothesis is called the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis is typically abbreviated as H is false), it is sufficient to define the null hypothesis.

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Testing the “read-across hypothesis” by

Direct effects hypothesis

Human pharmaceuticals present in the environment have the potential to cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. The “read-across hypothesis” stipulates that. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease which is characterized by a deficit in social interactions and communication with repetitive and restrictive behavior. In altered cells, metabolic enzymes are modified by the dysregulation of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. In ASD, the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway is upregulated. We focus this review on the hypothesis of Warburg effect stimulated by the overexpression of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway in ASD. Upregulation of WNT/β-catenin pathway induces aerobic glycolysis, named Warburg effect, through activation of glucose transporter (Glut), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), monocarboxylate lactate transporter 1 (MCT-1), lactate dehydrogenase kinase-A (LDH-A) and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH). The aerobic glycolysis consists to a supply of a large part of glucose into lactate regardless of oxygen. Aerobic glycolysis is less efficient in terms of ATP production than oxidative phosphorylation because of the shunt of the TCA cycle. Dysregulation of energetic metabolism might promote cell deregulation and progression of ASD.

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Social Support as a Source of Well-being and of Coping with Stress

Direct effects hypothesis

Support for the main effects hypothesis is robust and sys- tematic. The pattern is fully consistent with the solid arrows in the model present in Figure 1. Social Support & Coping The Buffering Hypothesis. The results presented above underscore the importance of social relationships as a direct source of human fulfillment and. A.)Direct effects theory The direct effect theory of communications says that a message is directly received and completely accepted by the receiver. The "Direct effect theory" implies that mass media always has a direct, immediate and powerful effect on their audiences. The mass media in specific is perceived as a powerful influence on culture. b.) Two-step flow theory The two-step flow theory stresses on human agency which means mass media information is channeled to the "masses" through opinion leadership. The people with most access to media, higher understanding of media content, explain and intercept the content to the public.

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Direct effects hypothesis - Psychology

Direct effects hypothesis

Direct effects hypothesis refers to the theory that coping resources, such as social support, have beneficial psychological and health effects under conditions of both high stress and low stress. Motion sickness is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement. Depending on the cause, it can also be referred to as seasickness, car sickness, simulation sickness or airsickness. If the motion causing nausea is not resolved, the sufferer will usually vomit. Vomiting often will not relieve the feeling of weakness and nausea, which means the person might continue to vomit until the cause of the nausea is treated. The area postrema in the brain is responsible for inducing vomiting when poisons are detected, and for resolving conflicts between vision and balance.

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Buffering hypothesis The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social.

Direct effects hypothesis

Extract. Buffering is the idea that having a particular resource or positive personality quality can serve to protect a person against the adverse impact of a stressful event. An example is the hypothesis that a high level of social support acts as a buffer against negative effects of stress Cohen & Wills, 1985. This hypothesis. Examines whether the positive association between social support and well-being is attributable more to an overall beneficial effect of support (main- or direct-effect model) or to a process of support protecting persons from potentially adverse effects of stressful events (buffering model). The review of studies is organized according to (1) whether a measure assesses support structure (the existence of relationships) or function (the extent to which one's interpersonal relationships provide particular resources) and (2) the degree of specificity (vs globality) of the scale. Special attention is given to methodological characteristics that are requisite for a fair comparison of the models. It is concluded that there is evidence consistent with both models. Evidence for the buffering model is found when the social support measure assesses the perceived availability of interpersonal resources that are responsive to the needs elicited by stressful events. Evidence for a main effect model is found when the support measure assesses a person's degree of integration in a large social network. Both conceptualizations of social support are correct in some respects, but each represents a different process through which social support may affect well-being. Implications for theories of social support processes and for the design of preventive interventions are discussed.

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Direct Approach vs Indirect Approach

Direct effects hypothesis

Social support is theorized to affect health through one of two routes 1 an indirect, buffering, or mediational route and 2 a direct, main-effects route. The stress-buffering hypothesis has been more frequently studied than the main-effects hypothesis. The stress-buffering hypothesis asserts that an individual's social network. Lapatinib, a human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, can cure 25% of trypanosome-infected mice, although the parasite lacks EGFR-like tyrosine kinases. Four trypanosome protein kinases associate with lapatinib, suggesting that the drug may be a multitargeted inhibitor of phosphoprotein signaling in the bloodstream trypanosome. Phosphoprotein signaling pathways in , we performed a proteome-wide phosphopeptide analysis before and after drug addition to cells. Lapatinib caused dephosphorylation of Ser/Thr sites on proteins predicted to be involved in scaffolding, gene expression, and intracellular vesicle trafficking. To explore the perturbation of phosphotyrosine (p Tyr)-dependent signaling by lapatinib, proteins in lapatinib-susceptible p Tyr complexes were identified by affinity chromatography; they included BILBO-1, MORN, and paraflagellar rod (PFR) proteins PFR1 and PFR2. These data led us to hypothesize that lapatinib disrupts PFR functions and/or endocytosis in the trypanosome. In direct chemical biology tests of these speculations, lapatinib-treated trypanosomes (i) lost segments of the PFR inside the flagellum, (ii) were inhibited in the endocytosis of transferrin, and (iii) changed morphology from long and slender to rounded. Thus, our hypothesis-generating phosphoproteomics strategy predicted novel physiological pathways perturbed by lapatinib, which were verified experimentally. Current chemotherapies need improvement, and the desired “target product profile” of new therapies include oral administration and multitargeting (1).

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